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Odd by completing different mathematical missions. Students can create their own spy avatar and many of the missions are timed. For younger students, this app has a sense of Space Invaders to it. Students learn, practice, and improve skills in multiplication, division, addition, and subtraction. Boasting the largest database of educational exercises of its kind in the app store, this app is for grades There are grade-specific lessons ranging from Math to Language Arts.
The lessons meet Common Core State Standards and include easy explanations. With more than 4,, users , teachers and parents must have this fun and educational app. This app lets students practice math at their own level, featuring handwriting recognition software, the ability to create multiple personalized user profiles, and individualized feedback. This collection of math-based games is perfect for younger students.
Aligned with Common Core standards the games are separated by grade and topic. Students will enjoy learning while playing interesting games. The games test timetables, fractions, and other mathematical concepts. Combining education with easy to play games is what makes MathsPlayground ideal for young students. With a 4.
Created for elementary grades, Chance Lab helps students explore probability. They can flip a virtual coin, spin a spinner, or roll a die any amount of times and examine the results in numerous formats. This arcade-style game is suggested for grades The reason: students at vocational schools, particularly those in marginalized, immigrant-heavy areas, tend to have the most performance problems in France. Many students feel like failures after ending up in professional schools. Some also lose interest when they're moved to classes they're not interested in due to lack of space in the ones they'd requested.
Truancy and dropout rates are high. Naturally, though, such a controversial idea is bound to spark opposition, especially in France. Organizations representing parents, teachers and students from the right and left alike have denounced the measure as sending an unacceptable message to students about what education is about.
Instead, students are being paid off to compensate [for] their boredom. Once Tier 1 core curriculum planning is happening within collaborative structures and with fidelity, options for tiered interventions should be outlined and discussed. Have the discussions emphasize some key aspect, such as matching the intervention to a progress-monitoring tool; identifying screening and progress monitoring options for grade level and instructional level; planning the frequency, duration, and intensity options; determining how to ensure delivery by the most qualified professional; and evaluating feasibility.
Develop and implement an efficient meeting protocol so that the teams can discuss various students who are in need of tiered interventions. Think out of the box on how to capitalize on staff with training in at least two of the areas regular and special education, special education and ESL, or regular education and ESL. Reorganization of these professionals is critical in an RTI model in order to capitalize on services and expertise for addressing the instruction and intervention for these students.
Create schedules that support staff i. For example, a school can adopt a staggered literacy block or ESL block where support personnel can move from hour to hour, or the school can adopt an enrichment and intervention block where you can provide the ESL teacher with the time for intervention. Implement a data calendar schoolwide to support discussion on screenings and progress-monitoring cycles. Adopt a data-driven problem solving cycle. Organize a schoolwide data work meeting where the school can set unique goals for the entire community of students as well as specific goals for groups or subgroups of students who may be doing poorly i.
Work with agencies across the nation specializing in providing training and technical assistance to develop professional development sessions that address how to support ELLs specifically at each tier. There are various challenges still ahead on the actual progress monitoring of English language development levels for these students, but many school districts are developing informal tools that follow their standards-based assessments.
The key is to closely monitor gains in each English language development level by using task analysis of the expected skills in each level of proficiency. Task analysis is a typical practice used in special education that identifies the outcomes skills and then breaks down the skills a student must complete in order to identify where the breakdown in learning is occurring. Collaboration between special education and ESL teachers will be critical in developing a checklist that may serve as a tool in the process of developing a monthly or weekly progress-monitoring schedule.
In which language should students be receiving support? Response from Amy Galicia, Ph. Tier 1 Universal Instruction is a key component in a Dual Language Program, not only because it is in the students' first language for part of the time, but also because instruction must meet the needs of all students regardless of their levels of language proficiency.
Tier 1 instruction should be the very first thing that is addressed in the RTI model, and often it is overlooked in many schools and programs. All too often we move to interventions without first examining what we can do at Tier 1. Nevertheless, the RTI model of support suggests that there will be students who will need targeted and intense levels of support even with solid Tier 1 instruction.
If that is the case, then this is where the advantage of Dual Language shines even more. In addition, content in math, science and social studies are taught in both languages — the delivery varies among models — meaning one week in English, the next in Spanish for example. When extra support is needed, the tough question is "In which language should the intervention be provided? Many struggles that students have can be addressed by simply starting with this question. When it comes to interventions for emerging bilingual students in a Dual Language program, I try not to make general statements about emerging bilingual students because this is a very diverse group of students.
What one student needs usually is very different from what another student needs. However, generally speaking, if a student is struggling and needs a targeted or intense level of support in literacy or numeracy, often it is a benefit to the student to have the intervention in the students' first language.
That is - if that is what the student needs. How do we determine what the student needs? It is critical to study deeply the linguistic history of the individual student and make decisions from there.
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How old is the student? What grade? What is the root cause of the issue? What does literacy instruction look like for the student? How long has the student been learning literacy in L1? How many siblings? What does language look like in the home? Is it a bilingual home? What did language look like in the home from birth to Kindergarten?
The linguistic history and language proficiency data can help us determine the answer to the following question: How do we know that the issue stems from the first language and is not about English Language Acquisition? Addressing this question will help in the creation of the intervention. It is important to gather data on both languages to help determine the root cause of the issue being seen. Examining the progress of acquiring English over time and comparing it to literacy in L1 and numeracy data if the concern is mathematical helps in this analysis. Once an analysis of the linguistic history has been done, the problem solving team - which includes parents - can determine what the intervention looks like - including what is the language of the intervention.
More often than not, in Dual Language programs, these teams are able to provide support in the child's L1, whereas in traditional settings, this is not a possibility. So to answer this question, "In which language should students be receiving support? I would venture to say, if the struggle is in acquiring English L2 , much could be done at Tier 1 within the regular classroom. If the struggle stems from L1 - then what is the cause? Be specific and targeted in the plan. For example, in reading - is the issue comprehension? In math, is it number sense?
Determining the cause helps determine the goals for the plan and the details which include the frequency, intensity and duration of the intervention. Dual Language means that all subjects are taught at some point in the child's first language and in the target language, so I'm not sure I understand how this could happen in Dual Language.
The only thing I can think of is in a model and the student is a native English speaker immersed in the target language in Kindergarten or First grade. If that is the case, I recommend determining the root cause in the area of concern. If the root cause is language acquisition - look at Tier 1 instruction. Dual Language can challenge students in their L1 and L2. RTI is not just for students who struggle in the traditional sense, but who also need a push to go further. Problem solving teams can make advanced learning plans too. Since there is very limited research on RTI and dual language programs, BPS is using what we know works and applying best research RTI practices to the dual language schools.
While the student population is overwhelmingly Hispanic making up The school has selected to focus on reading as part of the initiative. Phase 3 — Follow-up professional development has focused on understanding the data by looking at class level tiered breakdown in the dominant language and in the non dominant language for each group and are beginning to have conversations about what is CORE reading instruction in both English and Spanish and discussing their similarities and differences. These results have triggered a conversation about teaching reading in each language and the skills we expect the students to have in each language by the end of the year.
These results have also guided, instruction planning and intervention to address language skills appropriately. The case was different for other grades, like in 1st grade where there was a clear observation from data DIBELS and TRC that the difficulties of students are more specific in comprehension and vocabulary. In other words, teachers feel they would like to use DIBELS but also TRC before making a decision on who needs tiered intervention and in what kind of combination: phonemic awareness, decoding, fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary. Phase 5 — This step will help the school organize common planning time by grade level to develop data-driven problem solving protocols to plan for students needing tier 2 and tier 3 interventions and support.
Lastly, teachers will begin capturing the fidelity of the CORE and coordinating and collaborating while beginning the implementation of tiered interventions in the next few weeks. Phase 6 — This step will develop appropriate research-based interventions and professional development for teachers to begin implementation of tiered instruction in small groups for students needing tier 2 interventions and one-to-one for students needing tiered 3 interventions.
What happens to non-struggling students during an intervention block? Response from Thomas P. Komp : If you are fortunate enough to have an intervention block within your master schedule, then you also have the opportunity to service all students using this RTI model. Here is an example of how we use the intervention block for all students. During our Intervention Block 30 minutes 5x per week, per grade level our struggling students are taken out of each classroom by our Reading Specialists and regrouped to meet their educational needs.
Our Strategic and On-Track students remain with their classroom teacher. The Strategic students, those who are not quite in need of intervention, are provided re-teaching opportunities based on the Core program. The On-Track students, those who are doing well academically, are provided extension opportunities and enrichment. We utilize the expertise of our classroom teachers to form these groups.
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If you choose to keep all students within their own classroom during this time period, an alternating model also works. Does the RTI framework address students who are considered gifted? Response from Sheldon Horowitz, Ed. RTI is about ALL kids and helping educators understand and address their learning and behavioral needs in an effective, time sensitive and standards-appropriate manner.
This is RTI at its best! Response from Matthew Burns, Ph. Most do not solve problems. Here are a few behaviors that indicate your team is a pre-referral team rather than a PST: if you require 30 minutes per student, but 25 of those minutes are spent discussing the problem and 5 are spent brainstorming solutions, if the referring teacher spends the entire time making his or her case that the student should be "tested," or if the primary question that the team answers is whether or not the student should be referred for a special education eligibility evaluation rather than how to help the student.
Thomas, A. Thus, PSTs should help develop the Tier 3 interventions and decisions about referring students to the PST should be made with Tier 2 progress monitoring data. There is one more factor to consider. This team could also play a role in the RTI framework. However, a PST is still needed within Tier 3 to develop interventions and the progress monitoring plan. What should we do if we feel that the fidelity of instruction was compromised in one of the tiers of intervention? Response from George Noell, Ph.
Carry out that plan with observations or physical products e. Discuss problems and provide feedback. Until implementation is at a high level there is no purpose in proceeding.
Without solid implementation, RTI is a process lacking in substance. School Psychology Review, 34, Assessment for Effective Intervention, 32, There is a daily period built into the schedule for students to receive needed interventions. Students not needing interventions are assigned to an enrichment group. To begin the school year our We have been receiving some push back from students, parents and teachers as to why the students have to do the activities and why should they do them if it doesn't count for a grade. We would like the grade level teams to take ownership of the types of activities the enrichment groups do during this time.
We want the students and teachers to find the activities interesting and applicable to real world situations. Can you provide some suggestions as to what types of activities school provide for the enrichment students? Also, if there is information as to whether these activities should be counted for a grade. Response from Susan K. Johnsen, Ph. However, I can understand why they are receiving push back from students, parents, and teachers. I would suggest that the grade level teams consider differentiating the core content Tier I activities for their students during the normal English language arts periods and then use the enrichment times for extensions of interest-related projects.
For example, students that have already mastered basic skills in spelling or writing might substitute books of interest to them that offer depth and complexity. These books could relate to similar themes as books being read by other students in the class who are below grade level to facilitate the opportunity for whole-class discussion of similar themes across books. They might use technology to access Web sites of authors, to read challenging books online, and to interact with advanced readers from other schools using literature circle discussion strategies.
Individual students or students with similar knowledge and interests might work together in pairs or in small groups and be engaged in critical reading and analysis, advanced vocabulary development, and comparison of themes across fiction and nonfiction. Independent studies of sufficient depth and challenge might also be used to encourage students to work in areas of personal interest and challenge.
They might complete different creative products and participate in alternative writing assignments. Technology might be used to create concept maps, technological products, stories and even books. The enrichment time might then be used as extensions of the core content—particularly as students find their interests and are eager to develop more complex products. Grades should be used to determine whether or not the students have met the standards for their grade level. Using grades in this way can discourage students from pursuing more complex work or work related to interests.
The information I have on the subject say the 30 minute block is not what we are to do and that RTI is truly What are your thoughts on this specific subject?
Response from Mary Ruth Coleman, Ph. This may sound impossible, but what it really means is that RtI is a mindset about how we work with students, not just a way of organizing services. The benefits of setting a time of day for this include: 1 faculty and staff can be assigned to work in their area of strengths e. To do this well, student groups must be formed based on data showing strengths, needs, and interests; teachers must collaborate on designing and delivering the interventions both supports and enhancements ; and the process must be both flexible and dynamic.
Flexible in that specific interventions will change as the strengths and needs of the students change. Dynamic in that supports and enhancements are driven by data. So, if we are looking at high-quality teaching and learning with differentiated instruction as a Tier 1 foundation, then we can look at a dynamic and flexible delivery of Tier 2 and 3 supports and enhancements that include — but are not limited to — a 30 minute a day period where teachers and students are re-grouped around strengths and needs. I have been teaching for 16 years and have been moved to the position as the Instructional Support Teacher in two elementary buildings.
We are slowly implementing RTI as best we can in all of our schools. There has been some controversy as to whether Reading Recovery would be considered a Tier 2 or Tier 3 intervention for first grade students. There are some that say it should be a Tier 2 intervention because children that are chosen may not necessarily have gotten any other interventions first.
In other words these children have gone from the core Curriculum Tier 1 and been chosen using the specific assessment data associated with Reading Recovery. Others say that since it is the most intense Reading intervention we have for a child - they have the child 1 on 1 for a set amount of time daily - and the child is progressed monitored often throughout the time the child is in the program, that Reading Recovery should be considered a Tier 3 intervention.
What do you think? Stephanie Al Otaiba and I have just completed a randomized control study that shows that we get stronger student outcomes when children are assigned immediately to the tiered intervention that their scores would suggest is appropriate — that is, children with the greatest difficulties go immediately to Tier 3 and we don't waste time with Tier 2 — compared to traditional RTI. Because of its intensity, I would consider Reading Recovery a Tier 3 and would not worry whether children had received Tier 2 or not — if Reading Recovery is what they need, then I would enroll them.
I am a kindergarten teacher in St. Lucie County, Florida. This will be the third year using RTI with our students. How long should an RTI lesson last for 5 or 6 year olds? How many days a week should students attend an RTI lesson? Based on your question, it seems you are struggling with duration, or how long an individual lesson should last, and frequency, or how often students should receive the intervention.
Unfortunately, I have not found any hard rules on length of intervention lesson plans or frequency of interventions, though there are standard protocol intervention programs that prescribe both frequency and duration for teachers. Academic intervention research I have read typically does implement a frequency of at least 3 lessons or sessions per week.
You are right that teachers planning individual lessons within an RTI model should take into account younger children's ability or lack of ability to attend to instruction for long periods of time. When thinking about the length of any individual core or supplemental lesson plan, a variety of factors should be considered. First, teachers should ensure the lesson objectives are tied to the identified needs of the students. Next, all learning activities within that lesson should tie directly back to the learning objectives.
Teachers should also be sure to include targeted opportunities to assess student's understanding throughout the lesson, and plans should be flexible enough to adequately respond to any misunderstandings. Children differ on a variety of characteristics such as culture, ethnicity, language background, etc. These differences may impact their readiness levels, interests and preferred learning modalities. Another important consideration then, especially for a lesson plan that might last 30 minutes, is to address diverse learning preferences by incorporating a mixture of visual, audio, and kinesthetic learning opportunities.
There are three overarching learning modalities, or ways we can process information — visual sight , auditory sound and kinesthetic movement. As much as possible, teachers should try to address learning objectives through each of the three major learning modalities to ensure children have multiple opportunities to learn and demonstrate their learning Tomlinson, In this way, teachers 'break up' the lesson into manageable chunks, and the natural transitions that occur between activities within a lesson offer the opportunity to reengage learners and focus their attention back to the learning objectives.
Finally, a key part of the word activities is 'active' - children should have lots of opportunities during a lesson to be active! A minute lesson where the student has to sit and listen to a teacher talk with limited opportunities to actively engage in learning would be a lifetime for the kindergartner, or for the grown-up responding to this question smile!
In summary, children who need additional, targeted support to master skills or concepts likely do need multiple exposures to the content each week frequency. Though individual sessions may vary in length duration , all lessons should include principles of high quality lesson plans. Finally, lessons should incorporate multiple modalities to ensure students are engaged and learning. Have fun teaching and your students will be much more likely to enjoy learning! If a child is being serviced for Tier 3 and monitored as such, shouldn't the interventions in Tier 2 still be taking place for that child and also be monitored?
Would that be an overlap of progress monitoring in both tiers, or should different aspects Should the Tier 2 interventions continue to be monitored, to determine if the interventions being executed in Tier 2 work? I am torn at the thought of having too much monitoring and not enough teaching. Please share what it should look like for Tier 3 students while they are in the classroom receiving Tier 2 interventions while also being pulled out for their Tier 3 interventions. Current research is very consistent in finding that what is most effective for lower performing students is more time in high quality direct teacher instruction.
Substituting one instructional lesson for another lesson does not provide more time. If students are not proficient after receiving high quality research based differentiated instruction in the core Tier 1 classroom, we must provide an additional Tier 2 second dose of direct teacher instruction in a small group setting.
If progress monitoring demonstrates that a student is still not proficient, then a Tier 3 third dose of more intensive one on one instruction is added at least three times a week so that the student is receiving three reading or math lessons each day. Progress monitoring is critical at all three tiers to identify students who are not responding to the instruction or interventions and may need to be referred for possible special needs.
In addition, we must use our progress monitoring to determine the effectiveness of our intervention program and the instructional strategies we select to implement during this direct instruction.. Our school district is looking to decrease the reading specialist staff by almost half. Reading Specialists are the best people to deliver reading intervention. However, ever increasing budget cuts are forcing school districts to make tough decisions about how to prioritize spending.
Most districts are opting to protect core Tier 1 classroom instruction and cut support positions, even critical academic support positions like reading specials. When these cuts come, we must begin to think outside the box to develop new intervention models. In your case, I would make the following recommendation. Expand the role of your remaining reading specialists to 1 provide training for classroom teachers in research based instructional strategies and differentiation to strengthen core instruction so that less students are in need of intensive support, 2 provide training to other staff members administrators, media specialists, paraprofessionals, etc.
No matter how great the cuts, student needs must still be met. Everyone in the schoolhouse needs to take responsibility to be part of the solution. Check out my blog posting, Saving RTI from the Budget Ax, which offers more detailed suggestions on dealing with funding cuts. For example, we progress monitor the students once a week. If the student stays above their target line, as well as meets the next benchmark, a minimum of 5 times Response from Dawn Miller, Ph.
I'd like to make sure my response is contextualized properly. To me, RTI is a set of practices within a school improvement framework that is designed to meet each learners needs. That said, a student doesn't "exit RTI services," but rather may have their support change in response to their performance in a particular area. That change may represent a change in who serves them, the amount of time or frequency in support, the area of focus, or the materials being used to meet the need.
In my district, the data decision rules are similar to what you shared — we look at the last consecutive data points. The rules, however, are applied in a problem-solving routine. If the data points are consistently above the aimline and in an area that indicates low risk, then the questions on the table include: How has the student been performing during intervention time?
Discuss within intervention progress monitoring data. How has the student been performing during core reading time? Discuss differentiation during core. Are the data indicating that a change is warranted? If performance is consistently above, consider reducing or discontinuing current intervention and having the student supported during differentiated workshop. If performance is consistently below, consider the intervention match with needs, time, frequency, or need to customize within the intervention and differentiate core.
How can I best utilize this time? What would a 5 day schedule look like? SRSD includes teaching within six instructional stages for strategy acquisition Develop prior knowledge, Discuss it, Memorize it, Model it, Guided Practice, and Independent Practice and four self-regulation procedures Goal setting, Self-instructions, Self-monitoring, and Self-reinforcement. What happens next? How does the story end? How do the characters feel? It is important to note that SRSD is designed to be recursive rather than linear. When teaching strategies and self-regulation to struggling learners, for example, repeated guided practice may be required.
Once students have learned to self-regulate the writing process, instruction can be expanded to include different writing tasks e. Is there research to support placing students in core math programs.. Would it be better to place these students in the grade level math course with some kind of additional support along with intervention time? We are in our second year of utilizing CMP with grade level students and Transmath with struggling students at the 40th percentile and below.
Our local data did not show the Transmath students were able to meet proficiency.
Is there research to suggest we have a system problem? Response from David Allsopp, Professor of Special Education, University of South Florida : These are excellent questions and ones that many schools are wrestling with as they try to implement multi-tiered mathematics instruction.
In response to your first question, Is there research to support placing students in core math programs that meet their proficiency level but do not focus on grade level standards? The same is true for the practice of bypassing Tier 1 instruction that uses the identified core mathematics curriculum that appropriately addresses grade level benchmarks and relegating students who are underperforming to a Tier 2 only context where they receive instruction using an alternative mathematics curriculum that does not address the same grade level mathematics benchmarks only.
I am aware that these practices seem to be occurring with greater frequency. I am concerned that mathematics RTI is being implemented inappropriately in too many instances. Very few mathematics curricula or programs even have enough of an evidence base to project their potential for effectiveness for students generally, much less for struggling learners who have many differentiated mathematical learning needs. Your second question, Would it be better to place these students in the grade level math course with some kind of additional support along with intervention time?
The short answer is yes. Unfortunately, the gains made do not seem to catch these students up to their peers who are meeting progress benchmarks. This is where I personally believe that the problem-solving aspect to RTI needs to be much better articulated. To your last question, Is there research to suggest we have a system problem? I truly believe that this is an area where the research base is somewhat limited and very few folks have ever been exposed to what is really known, what is really not known, and how to effectively use what is known to do the best we can for students who struggle to learn mathematics.
To this end, I would certainly suggest that your school critically evaluate the current processes and practices that you have in place, consider whether or not they are resulting in the vast majority of students making grade level progress, and revise what is being done based on what you are learning. Response by Joy Zabala, Ed. D , Director of Technical Assistance, CAST: There is a great deal of information and many, many, resources for learning about how technology, when combined with effective pedagogy and problem-solving, can be used effectively for students with a wide range of learning weaknesses.
One important thing to keep in mind is that technology itself is rarely an adequate solution. Only when the technology is carefully matched to the specific strengths and weaknesses of the student, and to the goals of learning, can good choices be made. In general there are two broad approaches for using technology successfully.
Ask the Experts
The first approach focuses on how to use technology to help individual students - what is usually called assistive technology. For that approach to be successful requires careful attention to what the individual's strengths and weaknesses are, what tasks they are needing to do, etc. Usually it is best to engage a specialist in assistive technology that can do a careful analysis that addresses specific functional needs Reading? One source of help can be found at the QIAT website where there is a link to a wonderfully informative and interactive learning community whose members discuss virtually every way that technology might be used to support learners.
There is a tab for "mailing list" that provides a link to join the list and communicate with people all around the nation about the use of technology to support the full range of human function that may be of concern. The second approach focuses on the problem differently. That approach - called universal design for learning — focuses instead on using technology as a tool to reduce unacceptable barriers to learning in the curriculum or learning environment.
The central idea — complementary to assistive technology — is to ensure that schools have better curriculum and tools so that all students, including those with learning disabilities, have fewer impediments to learning, and more chances for success. You can find more about that approach at www. Together these two approaches provide important ways for students with a wide range of abilities and disabilities to get the education they need. We have been doing intervention at an increasing level each year since Each year, we refine and extend.
However, we have never developed an RTI Model that states clearly the entry and exit criteria, duration, etc. We know what we do and how we do Is there a sample or template for an RTI model that we could use to get started? Response from Bob Heimbaugh : The environment you have described in your question is typical in many schools. Gearing up for RtI takes a lot of work. Once the RtI framework is started in a school, it is hard to get all the components required for full implementation in place.
In the case of your school, a little tweaking will go a long way. While a template for an RtI model will be helpful, the critical decisions you are looking for are specific to your school, your assessments, your interventions, your students and your teachers. There are two critical questions that you need to answer: For your norm referenced and valid screening, progress monitoring, and diagnostic assessments, have cut scores been established by the test authors? When considering intensity and duration, review current progress monitoring data at your school to determine how and when current decisions about students are being made.
From that data, see if you can establish general decision patterns for screening data and for progress monitoring data for Tiers 2 and 3 that your school is currently demonstrating. From that data, formalize the process as a school to be used at your collaborative team meetings. Should interventions in Tier 2 and Tier 3 follow the alignment of the core curriculum?
Response from Karen Wixson, Ph. However, this also assumes that the core curriculum covers the areas needed by the students receiving Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions. It is conceivable that there might be a need for differences between Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions and the core curriculum. For example, a core curriculum that is narrowly focused on foundational skills might not address all of the areas in which struggling students may need work if they are to make good progress, which would call for Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions that go beyond the core curriculum.
In general, however, a good rule of thumb is that Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions should not involve terminology, content, skills, strategies, tasks, materials, etc. This is likely both to promote learning and to help avoid confusion. What does it take to get a strategy or intervention program labeled as research based? What methodology is used to determine whether interventions are research based? Response from Joe Torgesen, Ph. The most common way is to ask whether the basic instructional content, sequences, and methods in a program are consistent with research in the area.
For example, research indicates that intervention programs for early reading instruction achieve better results if they guide instruction that is explicit and systematic.